By Stanley R. Maloy John E. Cronan David Freifelder

The revision of this vintage textbook via David Freifelder has been rewritten and up to date to incorporate the various and up to date advances in microbial genetics. the elemental layout, association and magnificence of the 1st variation has been retained.

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Finally, we would like to thank our families for their support and patience with our constant preoccupation with science. STANLEY MALOY JOHN CRONAN, JR. Page xxiii PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION Experiments in microbial genetics carried out in the 1940s and 1950s gave birth to what ultimately became known as molecular biology. The elucidation of the structure of DNA by James Watson and Francis Crick, neither of whom were geneticists, had enormous impact on all of genetics and biology. Many physicists, fascinated by the new discoveries and attracted by the quantitative aspects of microbial genetics, joined classic microbiologists, geneticists, and biochemists, and what has been called the Golden Age of Biology began.

A few examples of the uses of mutations are described briefly here. 1. Mutations can elucidate functions. For example, before the early 1950s, it was not known whether nutrients were taken up by bacteria by passive diffusion through the cell membrane or by specific transport systems. Wild-type E. coli can grow on low concentrations of lactose. Some mutants (called lacY that were unable to grow on lactose were unable to take up radiolabeled lactose, indicating that they were defective for lactose transport.

Because these chapters are meant as a review, the material is presented fairly succinctly. Furthermore, only topics needed in later discussions have been included. Every chapter in this book ends with a substantial set of questions and problems. Most of the beginning questions simply test the memory of the student; they are designed to ensure that the reader has learned the definitions and understood the most elementary concepts. Later questions are more difficult. Complete answers to all questions and problems, with explanations, are given in the Answers section at the back of the book.

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