By Eugene C Toy; et al

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Anaerobes are organisms that do not require oxygen for growth. Sensitivity of the anaerobic organism can vary from those that cannot tolerate any oxygen (strict anaerobes) to those that can grow in the presence of small amounts of oxygen (oxygen tolerant). Anaerobes are therefore grown under atmospheric conditions that limit the presence of oxygen and include predominantly nitrogen, as well as hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Tissues or fluids collected and transported under anaerobic conditions are the most optimal; however, if necessary an anaerobic transport swab can also be used.

Fragilis (1011 organisms per gram). As a result, they are very important anaerobes that can cause human infection. Members of the B. fragilis group are most commonly isolated from infections associated with contamination by the contents of the colon, where they may cause suppuration, for example, peritonitis after bowel injury. Classification is based on colonial and biochemical features and on characteristic short-chain fatty acid patterns in gas chromatography. These short-chain fatty acids also contribute to the foul-smelling odor emanating from the wound in the above case.

Trimethoprim: Selectively inhibits dihydrofolic acid eductase to block folic acid synthesis and cell growth. Acts synergistically with sulfmethoxazole. Fluoroquinolones (selected) – ciprofloxacin (t,o,p) – levofloxacin (t,o,p) – ofloxacin (t,o,p) – gatifloxacin (o,p) – moxifloxacin (o,p) Inhibit activity of bacterial topoisomerase (DNA gyrase) that is necessary for replication. t = topical, o = oral, p = parenteral 16 CASE FILES: MICROBIOLOGY PART 2. ANTIVIRAL AGENTS The three major classes of antiviral agents are DNA polymerase inhibitors, reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and protease inhibitors.

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