By Wilfred Cantwell Smith
Smooth ISLAM IN INDIA A SOCIAL research by means of WILFRED CANTWELL SMITH CONTENTS half I - INTELLECTUALS AND THE circulate OF principles 1. THE circulate IN FAVOUR of up to date BRITISH tradition Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan The Aligarh tuition A notice at the Muhammadan AngloOriental university Muslim college, Aligarh A word at the half performed through Christian Missions in Islamic Reform 2. THE move IN FAVOUR OF ISLAMIC tradition OF THE earlier Amir all Descriptive research of the stream Later advancements of the move A observe on uthmaniyah collage three. THE flow IN FAVOUR OF a brand new tradition OF the longer term: innovative The innovative revolutionary fans and different sleek Muslim Progressives A be aware at the Jdmiah Milllyah IslSmiyah four. THE circulate IN FAVOUR OF a brand new tradition OF the long run: REACTIONARY the Reactionary Reactionary fans and different glossy Muslim Reactionaries A notice on contemporary advancements on the Muslim college Aligarh desk of Contents half II - POLITICS AND ORGANIZATIONAL pursuits 1. AN INTRODUCTORY ESSAY ON COMMONALISM 2. THE PANISLAMIC, KHILAFAT, AND comparable activities three. ISLAM AND INDIAN NATIONALISM Muslims and the Indian nationwide Congress ProNationalist Muslim teams: The Ahrar get together The Mumin and comparable teams different Political Groupings The Azad Muslim convention four. ISLAMIC NATIONALISM: THE KHAKSAR flow five. ISLAMIC NATIONALISM: THE MUSLIM LEAGUE The Conservative section: 1906-36 The Reactionary pfcase: 1936-42 the latest section: 1942 6. a few THEOLOGICAL teams : The Classical Theologians A word at the Ahmadiyah circulate The ShTah NOTES, and so forth Definition of phrases On Transliteration On Alphabetical Order References and Notes Bibliography Index
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Long-term trade and pastoral and migration routes had already linked India to Iran in the west and Central Asia to the north for more than a thousand years. ). But while artifacts found at numerous sites in this period show evidence of Central Asian influences and may suggest the presence of IndoIranian–speaking populations in the subcontinent, archaeologists have not linked any one of these cultures to the Indo-Aryan communities that composed the Rig-Veda. Excavators found evidence of camel and horse domestication at Pirak in Baluchistan from ca.
And many Western and Indian scholars (perhaps the majority, at least in the West) also accept the “Into India” theory as the most plausible explanation of the origins of Indian/Hindu religion and culture. That is, they argue that the peoples who composed the Rig-Veda (Hinduism’s oldest text) were an Indo-European–speaking people who entered Afghanistan and the Punjab region of the subcontinent from the outside. The linguistic connections of the into India theorists are widely accepted and unquestioned even by opponents of the theory themselves.
E. E. ) Scholars now look at a combination of factors to account for the end of the urban Harappan civilization: the end of trade links with Mesopotamia ca. 1800 that may have destroyed the Harappan trading economy; the increasing desiccation of the Ghaggar-Hakra/Sarasvati River region; the possibility that tectonic changes may have flooded the lower Indus in the MohenjoDaro region; and/or the possibility of endemic disease. Scholars even speculate on how Harappan ideology (about which nothing is known) might have contributed to the civilization’s demise.
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