By J. S. Rowlinson

Tracing the historical past of suggestion on molecular origins of floor phenomena, this quantity deals a severe and particular exam and evaluate of contemporary theories, targeting statistical mechanics and alertness of leads to mean-field approximation to version platforms. the hole chapters survey the earliest efforts to recapture those phenomena by utilizing crude mechanical versions of beverages in addition to next quasi-thermodynamic equipment. there's emphasis on liquid-gas floor, with a spotlight on liquid-liquid surfaces within the ultimate chapters.

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Macmillan, London (1910). 7. A view that was the hall-mark o f those who believed in the caloric theory; Fox, R. See also FricM. M. m Method and Appraisal in the Physical Seiences (ed. C. Howson). p. 277, Cambridge University Press (1976). 8. For early kinetic theories of gases, see Talbot, G. R. and Pacey, A. J. Brit. J. Hist. Sci. 3, 133 (1966);and Truesdell. C. Essays in the History of Mechanics, Chapter 6 , Springer, Berlin (1%8). 9. Lord Rayleigh, Phil. Mag. 30,285,456(1890);repMted in ScientificPapers, Vol.

35) as where the sum is over c of the (c + 1) independent densities and hence where the variations dC11: are now all independent. 47) where the index k runs over (c - 1) of the (c + 1) generalized components, excluding the two cases k = i and j. 48) when the dividing surface is at z, and where zi is the dividing surface at which ri = 0. 4 -5940Jmol-' and so. 42), rClc,) is 5 . 8 9 ~ lO-'mol m-'. 167 nm, which is somewhat smaller than the size of an argon atom. 3). The discussion above is based principally on the choice of the Helmholtz free energy and the grand potential as the fundamental thermodynamic functions.

3, pp. 14. By 1819 he was discussing more specifically intermolecular repulsions which, while still ascribed to heat or caloric, have the essential property that they decrease more rapidly with distance than the attractive forces. See papers published between 1819 and 1824 in Oeuvres compDtes, ref. 3,Vol. 13,p. 273 (19041,Vol. 14,p. See also Fox, ref. 7,p. 165,and Brush, ref. 11, Chap. 11. 11. Brush, S. G. Z’Tw Kind of Motion we. call Heat. A History of the Kinetic Theory of Gases in the. Nineteenth Century.

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