By Richard Duncan-Jones

This booklet discusses minting and fiscal coverage within the first 3 centuries of the Roman Empire. by way of learning Roman coin-survivals in a much broader context, the writer uncovers vital proof in regards to the starting place of coin hoards of the Principate. The ensuing analyses use vast coin fabric accrued for the 1st time. Dr. Duncan-Jones builds up an image of minting, monetary coverage and fiscal stream that provides considerably to our wisdom and that stands because the in basic terms research of its variety for this era.

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147 4. PROBLEMS OF THE SOURCES Surviving historical sources offer very little guidance about the balance-sheet of the Empire. The literary tradition is typically more concerned with moral stereotypes than with systematic description. Nevertheless, where they exist, references to amounts spent should still be useful. But the figures that have come down contain particular problems of their own. 2. Thesefiguresare generally taken literally, but they have obvious limitations. However, their stereotyping goes further.

16-17). 141 But his tax-changes clearly showed that Severus's surplus was not enough to finance all of this new expenditure. Caracalla doubled the 5% taxes on manumissions and bequests, and introduced new taxes, according to Dio's hostile but contemporary account. 143 It is clear that the reign wasfinanciallyunstable, and that the enormous new commitments were more than existing revenues and reserves could support. 144 Under Elagabalus spending on handouts rose to even greater heights, with an increase of almost 50% in the mean level.

I. For an estimate of their cost, see the forthcoming work by Janet DeLaine. A figure running to several hundred million sesterces is indicated. 4-5. 2-3. ' (Syme 1971, 146). Cf. HA Elag. 7. io. Jones 1964, 23, cited by Rathbone (1991, 5) in a book on the Heroninos archive which illuminates one of the most important exceptions. For third-century trends in the sources, cf. Duncan-Jones 1990, 68, fig. 14. 72. 1 nos. 2 and 9, with note). 2. 1 Surpluses, receipts, deficits and tax-remissions (figures in millions of sesterces) Amount 1.

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