By David B Hollander

Roman financial historical past has tended to target the research of Roman coinage yet different resources usually functioned as, or as opposed to, cash. This e-book locations coinage in its broader financial context by way of additionally interpreting the position of bullion, monetary tools, and commodities corresponding to grain and wine in making funds, facilitating alternate, measuring worth and storing wealth. using such resources decreased the call for for coinage in a few sectors of the economic climate and is an important think about opting for the effect of the big raise within the coin offer over the past century of the Republic. funds call for thought means that elevated coin creation ended in extra monetization, no longer consistent with capita financial progress.

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68 Municipal bronze coins, foreign coins and forgeries also help explain why the Roman state minted relatively few bronze coins. 70 It is not clear exactly when, for what purpose, or in what quantities these coins were produced,71 but they may have supplemented the supply of Roman bronze or replaced it in areas where Roman bronze tended not to circulate. ‘Imitations’ or forgeries of Roman bronze coins would have helped to accomplish the same end. Crawford identiÀed 117 different groups of Republican imitations,72 and suggested that they mostly come from the period 100–25 BCE.

1: magna numerata pecunia, magno pondere auri, maiore argenti coacto de publicis exactionibus. 10 Caes. B Civ. 18: Quibus rebus perterritos cives Romanos eius provinciae sibi ad rem publicam administrandam HS CLXXX et argenti pondo XX milia, tritici modium CXX milia polliceri coëgit. 11 See, for example, Cicero Pis. 90 and Dio Cass. 49. 12 Cic. Pis. 90: Lex enim generi tui et decerni et te accipere vetabat nisi decreto triumpho. 11: Cetera expedientibus quae ad bellum opus erant consulibus, aurum vicensimarium, quod in sanctiore ad ultimos casus servabatur, promi placuit.

49 Cic. Phil. 10. 1 Permutationes Permutatio and its verbal form, permutare, appear a number of times of Cicero’s letters. 51 The following references to permutatio illustrate what is clear and what remains uncertain concerning the use of this Ànancial device: 1. ” 2. 2 ( July 26th, 51 BCE): Cicero, in Ephesus, states that he has given to Philogenes (probably a freedman of Atticus) an account of a permutatio between Atticus and himself. 3. 4 ( July 27th, 51 BCE): Cicero states that he will receive in Laodicea money owed to him “from the public exchange” (‘ex publica permutatione’).

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