By Michael Babula (auth.)

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Maslow, 1970, p. 161, 166) Self-actualizers help out of moral dictum or out of a sense of duty. The sense of duty becomes a moralistic drive when we believe that some superior knowledge would otherwise go to waste if unused. The altercentric altruist draws upon the self to fulfill a self-projected duty on the other. In a sense, the altercentric altruist believes they are operating from the station of the other. However, motor empathy underlies altercentric altruism, and this type of altruistic motivation is still derived from the first-person perspective.

Certain people have progressed past rewriting our own purpose by using positive adaptations to negate self-interest. The difficulty for the modern human is how to progress beyond their illusionary, albeit necessary, first steps toward locating personal meaning and development to the negation of selfinterest at exocentric altruism. Today, too many dogmatic evolutionary theorists are strengthening psychological illusions with the false assumption that our primary purpose is only aimed at inclusive fitness and survival.

The literature mentions that attachment is “... defined as an innate biological system promoting proximity seeking between an infant and a specific attachment figure in order to increase the likelihood of survival to a reproductive age” (Sroufe, 2000 cited in Decety and Svetlova, 2012). Studies on the matter indicate that basic empathic responses underlie egoistic altruism, which has evolved to help us achieve security. In one study, “... , 2001 cited in Decety and Svetlova, 2012). A mother’s smile that is reflected back by a child, joint giggling between a parent and child, and a child’s ability to recognize a caregiver’s voice or scent are all examples of motor and affective empathy serving as bonding mechanisms to enhance the offspring’s sense of security.

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