By D. Lenczner (Auth.)

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A) Maxwell model. (b) Strain-time diagram for a Maxwell model. 4b shows the strain—time diagram for a Maxwell model under a constant stress a. By connecting the spring and dashpot in parallel we get what is known as the Kelvin model, shown in Fig. 5a. Here the elastic and viscous strains are both equal to the total strain so that S = Se = e1. 11) Creep and Moisture Movements 1 E 41 39 l (a) Load removed (b) FIG. 5. (a) Kelvin model. (b) Strain-time diagram for a Kelvin model. At the same time, the total stress a, which is assumed constant, is shared between the elements so that = se -{- s n.

To minimize or eliminate these cracks two approaches are possible. (a) To minimize the temperature differential that exists between the interacting parts. This is achieved by use of insulating materials on the outside of the roof. (b) To decrease or eliminate the forces in the interacting parts resulting from the temperature differential. This is done by the provision of movement joints. Diversity of opinion and practice exists on the most effective means of control of cracks in buildings. Some advocate the use of reinforcement; others advocate the provision of movement joints at the weakest sections of the building.

Creep in Composites under Axial Loads The rheological models discussed previously can also be used to study creep strains in composites with different elastic and viscous characteristics. However, whereas before we considered only cases Movements in Buildings 48 where the applied load was constant, in the case of composites it is important to study the way the load acting on the components changes with time due to their different creep characteristics. The Kelvin model does not lend itself to this type of problem since to obtain a solution to eqn.

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