By National Research Council, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, Cognitive, and Sensory Sciences Board on Behavioral, Committee on Future Directions for Behavioral and Social Sciences Research at the National Institutes of Health, Car

Discusses how the nationwide Institutes of healthiness can combine learn in social, behavioural and biomedical sciences to raised comprehend the factors of disorder and interventions that advertise future health. this article additionally highlights parts of medical chance probably to enhance well-being.

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Behavioral Factors A set of behavioral risk factors, including poor diet, little exercise, promiscuous and/or unprotected sexual activity, smoking, alcohol abuse, and drug abuse, is associated with a broad array of diseases. Continued attention to the development and modification of these behaviors is essential. Research suggests intergenerational transfer of risk behaviors that point to the necessity for early intervention. , 1994); this suggests that nicotine or other substances in tobacco released by maternal smoking may have affected the fetus, perhaps through nicotinic input to the dopaminergic system.

In both examples, and numerous others documented in this report, there is a need for understanding the pathways underlying these coarse-grained linkages. Moreover, full understanding of pathways requires a long time horizon that includes genetic predispositions and early life antecedents that contribute to later-life health and disease. It INTRODUCTION 23 requires a multilevel view of life histories in which, for example, gene expression is seen as a dynamic process linked to psychosocial experience and community-level structures.

1993 “Stress and the Individual: Mechanisms leading to disease” Archives of Internal Medicine 153:2093-2101. McGinnis JM, Foege WH. 1993 “Actual causes of death in the United States” Journal of the American Medical Association 270:2207-2212. Weiner H. 1998 “Notes on an evolutionary medicine” Psychosomatic Medicine 60:510-520. Wilson EO. 1998 Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge (New York: Alfred A. Knopf). Worthman C. 1999 “Epidemiology of Human Development” Chapter 3, pp. ). Hormones, Health, and Behavior.

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