By Ana Lúcia Leitão, Francisco J. Enguita

This ebook provides a state of the art compilation of articles at the function of non-coding RNAs as pivotal molecules for setting up useful relationships among various organisms. It additionally describes how non-coding RNA molecules can act as dynamic verbal exchange units and the way they modulate the interplay among varied kingdoms. It describes examples together with viruses, micro organism, fungi, and better organisms corresponding to protozoa which are focused on pathogenic or symbiotic interactions, and the jobs of other households of non-coding RNAs inside of those relationships. every one bankruptcy presents readers molecular and practical insights, breaking down the subjacent mechanisms and exploring their practical implications and destiny functions. greater than sixty years after the basis of the “RNA tie membership” by way of George Gamow, new roles for non-coding RNA molecules are turning out to be revealed.

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Extra resources for Non-coding RNAs and Inter-kingdom Communication

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Although comprising only 3 % of total enhancers, super-enhancers were strongly enriched near genes that were either induced or repressed in response to TLR4 signaling, 2 Microbial Manipulation Host Dark Matter 43 raising the possibility that super-enhancers are potential contributors to not only cellular identity but also functional identity. Using global run-on sequencing (GRO-seq), up to nearly 30 % of total nascent RNAs were identified to be eRNAs, the majority of which were produced at super-enhancers.

Immunity (reviewed in Atianand and Fitzgerald 2014; Aune and Spurlock 2016; Carpenter 2016; Zhang and Cao 2015). Notably, the identification of lncRNAs involved in innate immunity has typically been based on whole genome lncRNA profiling by RNA-seq or microarrays, and in response to specific stimuli such as toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists. A few of these lncRNAs have also been characterised in response to specific viral infections including the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Influenza A Virus (IAV), and the Herpes simplex virus (HSV).

In contrast, similar lncRNA-Cox2 knockdown in Pam3CSK4 stimulated cells decreased expression of TLR1 and IL6. This suggested that lncRNA-Cox2 represses IRF7, CCL5 and other selected ISGs, while activating TLR1 and IL6, which was supported by transcriptomic analysis of macrophages ectopically expressing lncRNA-Cox2. In addition, by overlaying differential gene expression and RNA polymerase II (RNPII) occupancy profiles for various cell conditions, it was established that lncRNA-Cox2 functions as a repressor in the complex with hnRNP A/B and hnRNP A2/B1 (Carpenter et al.

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