By Chhabra R.P., Richardson J.F.

This ebook bridges the space among the theoretical paintings of the rheologist, and the sensible wishes of these who've to layout and function the structures during which those fabrics are dealt with or processed. it really is a longtime and critical reference for senior point mechanical engineers, chemical and method engineers, in addition to any engineer or scientist who must examine or paintings with those fluids, together with pharmaceutical engineers, mineral processing engineers, scientific researchers, water and civil engineers. This re-creation covers a significantly broader variety of subject matters than its predecessor, together with computational fluid dynamics modelling concepts, liquid/solid flows and purposes to components similar to meals processing, between others. * Written through of the world's best specialists, this is often the one committed non-Newtonian movement reference in print.* considering first booklet major advances were made in just about all components coated during this publication, that are integrated within the re-creation, together with advancements in CFD and computational options, pace profiles in pipes, liquid/solid flows and functions to foodstuff processing, and new heat/mass move equipment and models.* Covers either simple rheology and the fluid mechanics of NN fluids ? a really self-contained reference for a person learning or operating with the processing and dealing with of fluids

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Fibre spinning is an example of uniaxial elongation (but the stretch rate varies from point to point along the length of the fibre). Tubular film blowing which involves extruding of polymer through a slit die and pulling the emerging sheet forward and sideways is an example of biaxial extension; here, the stretch rates in the two directions can normally be specified and controlled. 25 Uniaxial extensional flow which may be made either by extrusion or by injection moulding, followed by heating and subjection to high pressure air for blowing to the desired size.

The spoon), the inertial circulation will die out as a result of the action of viscous forces. 20 Qualitative differences between a viscous fluid and an elastic solid visco-elastic (as some of the proprietary soups are), the liquid will be seen to slow to a stop and then to unwind a little. This type of behaviour is closely linked to the tendency for a gel structure to form within the fluid; such an element of rigidity makes simple shear less likely to occur – the shearing forces tending to act as couples to produce rotation of the fluid elements as well as pure slip.

27) or Pyy and τyy can be replaced by Pzz and τzz, respectively. The earliest determinations of elongational viscosity were made for the simplest case of uniaxial extension, the stretching of a fibre or filament of liquid. , 1989). 28) The value of 3 for Trouton ratio for an incompressible Newtonian fluid applies to all values of shear and elongation rates. 29) is somewhat ambiguous, since it depends on both ε and γ , and some convention must therefore be adopted to relate the strain rates in extension and shear.

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