By Nicole Schweikardt

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CONTENTS

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Preface

CHAPTER ONE. fundamentals FROM ALGEBRA AND TOPOLOGY

1. 1 Set Theory

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CHAPTER 4. kinds of FUNCTORS

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For the computer input, it would seem necessary to do a careful analysis of characters in the Chinese language and introduce suitable additional distinguishing features to eliminate ambiguities resulting from different characters consisting of the same set of strokes. It seems likely that attractive solutions to this problem can be found so that characters can be easily put into the computer without ambiguity and the display device becomes unnecessary for the typewriter. The problem of recovering the familiar form of the characters through the output device encounters the central difficulty of getting good Chinese typewriters because one would like to avoid the cumbersome practice of providing one special physical "lead character" for each character.

For example, if RH is not true, then there is some k, such that R(k) is not true. But then since R(k) is decidable by simple calculations, -,R(k) is a theorem of PA by a well-known general fact about PA. Hence, 3n-,R(n) or -,'rfnR(n) would be a theorem of P A. Therefore, if RH is undecidable in P A, then RH is true. The most famous list of open problems is perhaps the one given by Hilbert in 1900. A symposium was held in May, 1974 with a large number of mathematicians to consider the mathematical consequences of the Hilbert problems.

If there are maps requiring five colors, there must be a smallest such map, that is to say, one with the smallest number of regions which requires five colors (called a minimal five-chromatic map) . , find a smaller one also requiring five colors. Kempe broke up the above argument into four lemmas. ( 1) Every map contains a region with five or fewer neighbors. (2) No minimal five-chromatic map can have a region with just two or just three neighbors (because we can then find a smaller map also requiring five colors).

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