By W. Lawrence Gates (auth.), M. E. Schlesinger (eds.)

PREFACE xv record OF academics xix record OF members xx]. quantity I half I - layout AND improvement OF PHYSICALLY-BASED versions OF the ambience part 1 - advent GATES, W. L. - weather and the weather procedure three SIMMONS, A. J. and L. BENGTSSON - Atmospheric basic circulate versions: Their layout and Use for weather reviews 23 part 2 - Numerical equipment for Large-Scale Dynamics ARAKAWA, A. - Finite-Difference equipment in weather Modeling seventy nine BOURKE, W. - Spectral tools in international weather and climate Prediction types 169 part three - Parameterization of Subgrid-Scale actual methods FOUQUART, Y. - Radiative move in weather types 223 LAVAL, okay. - Land floor techniques 285 dealers, P. J. , Y. MINTZ, Y. C. SUD and A. DALCHER - a short Description of the easy Biosphere version (SiB) 307 SOMMERIA, G. - Parameterization of the Planetary Boundary Layer in Large-Scale Atmospheric versions 331 x desk OF CONTENTS TIEDTKE, M. - Parameterization of Cumulus Convection in Large-Scale versions 375 SUNDQVIST, H. - Parameterization of Condensation and linked Clouds in types for climate Prediction and basic stream Simulation 433 half II - layout AND improvement OF PHYSICALLY-BASED versions OF the sea AND SEA ICE HAN, Y. -J. - Modelling and Simulation of the final move of the sea 465 HIBLER, W. D. - Modelling Sea Ice Thermodynamics and Dynamics in weather experiences 509 half III - tools OF COUPLING surroundings, OCEAN AND ICE versions BRYAN, K.

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Extra resources for Physically-Based Modelling and Simulation of Climate and Climatic Change: Part 1

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In this feedback a warm anomaly of sea-surface temperature induces a local low-level atmospheric warming, with a consequent lowering of the atmospheric surface pressure. This in turn induces a local atmospheric circulation which serves to deflect the surface water away from the initial anomaly through the action of the surface wind stress. An upwelling effect follows, in which generally colder water beneath the surface is brought upward to replace the diverging warmer surface water, with the result that the initial sea-surface temperature anomaly tends to be dissipated.

1983a, b). Studies of the response to changes in various forcing factors or initial conditions have increased and, coupled with simpler-model results and data studies, have led to an increased awareness of the important role of such quantities as sea-surface temperature, albedo and soil wetness. One further recent development is perhaps worthy of special mention. Numerical weather prediction and general circulation modelling grew from similar origins in the early 1950s, but modelling for the two applications differed widely.

Different, though fixed, values of the latter have been used in model studies of past climate (Mason, 1976; Kutzbach and Otto-Bliesner, 1982). Some of the processes outlined in preceding paragraphs are such that climate is critically sensitive to the characteristics of the underlying surface. Some surface properties, such as the distribution of sea, land and mountains may be regarded as fixed in time for all practical purposes, but other properties change substantially and relatively rapidly in response to the state of the atmosphere.

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