By Ashraf Khan, Ian O. Ellis, Andrew M. Hanby, Ediz F. Cosar, Emad A. Rakha, Dina Kandil

This quantity offers a complete overview of the molecular mechanisms interested in precancerous lesions and benign and malignant breast tumors. Given the advanced molecular pathways in breast melanoma biology, the publication simplifies those complicated mechanisms and highlights the sensible matters very important for day-by-day perform. Sections are based to check breast carcinogenesis and the position of familial predisposition and stem cells in initiation and development of breast melanoma. In-depth chapters current morphologic and molecular correlations in precancerous and malignant breast lesions, whereas outlining hugely functional matters which are in perform this day in breast pathology, similar to assessment of estrogen, progesterone receptors, and HER-2.

Written through specialists within the box, Precision Molecular Pathology of Breast Cancer is a beneficial source that covers the present perform of breast pathology and appears into the long run with an emphasis at the molecular foundation of breast cancer.

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Extra info for Precision Molecular Pathology of Breast Cancer

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Women who are STK11 mutation carriers have an approximate 30 % lifetime risk of developing breast cancer. These tumors are often bilateral and sometimes develop at an early age [56]. 3) mutations are associated with the development of the autosomal dominant Cowden syndrome, characterized by multiple hamartomas in different organs, increased risk of cancers, facial trichilemmomas, acral keratoses and oral papillomatous papules. PTEN functions by down-regulating the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) signal transduction cascade and acts as a tumor suppressor and growth regulator [57].

Patients who meet criteria for Cowden syndrome [76] should have full sequencing of the PTEN gene including deletion/duplication and promoter analysis. Studies have shown that genetic counseling by a cancer genetics professional reduces patient stress, improves the estimation, and likelihood of actual cancer risk as well as reduces unintentional or unnecessary testing [73]. The NCCN does not have specific recommendation for other rare familial cancer predisposition syndromes and recommends an individualized multidisciplinary approach in the management of these patients.

Am J Hum Genet. 2004;75(6):1131–5. Stolz A, et al. The CHK2-BRCA1 tumour suppressor pathway ensures chromosomal stability in human somatic cells. Nat Cell Biol. 2010;12(5):492–9. Bell DW, et al. Heterozygous germ line hCHK2 Mutations in Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Science. 1999;286(5449):2528–31. Weischer M, Bojesen SE, Ellervik C, et al. CHEK2*1100delC genotyping for clinical assessment of breast cancer risk: Meta-analyses of 26,000 patient cases and 27,000 controls. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26:542–8. Zhang B, Beeghly-Fadiel A, Long J, et al.

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