By Alan Huddleston

Interest in bone densitometry equipment has lately skilled a resurgence in the clinical group. Physicians became extra than ever earlier than within the prognosis and remedy of degenerative illnesses of bone equivalent to osteoporosis. the general public belief of osteoporosis and its prevention has been lately heightened. simply because osteoporosis is frequent, particularly in ladies, and results in a rise in fractures in our inhabitants, many re­ searchers and clinicians are strongly encouraged of their look for extra sensi­ tive and actual equipment of prognosis. This ebook was once written for physicians, scientists, engineers, clinical phy­ sicists, and others needing an advent or additional knowing of this interesting box. starting with the early improvement of x-ray movie tools for assessing bone prestige, the sector has gradually grown in the course of the years. Novel and engaging units were designed for the dimension of bone mass, bone density, cortical thickness, and different parameters of bone alterations. either qualitative and quantitative bone equipment are defined. The suggestions comprise imaging units comparable to CT and radiography in addition to fastened element equipment during which bone features of a area of curiosity are analyzed.

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1 mm using high precision needle-tipped calipers; the measurement is performed at the midpoint of the second metacarpal, as determined by measurement of its total length (figure 6). The thickness of the cortex is measured along the line through the midpoint and perpendicular to the long axis of the metacarpal bone. The radiation dose to the patient's hands as measured using an electrometer and ionization chamber is about 40 mrem (Aitken, 1984). The following indices are derived from measurements of the total width (TW) and the medullary width (MW) on the second metacarpal (Aitken, 1984): The metacarpal index (MI) is defined: MI = TW - MW TW 21 Figure 5.

These systems produced transmission images of the appendicular skeletal sites. From these images the mass per unit area (g/cm 2) was derived at any selected point. Horsman described the multiwire proportional counter (MWPC) as a gas-filled chamber containing three planes of closely spaced wires. The MWPC was the detector system for determination of the transmitted radiation intensities, which emanated from a sealed radionuclide source placed above the detector. The appendicular bone chosen for the study was located between the radiation source and the MWPC detector system.

The measurements were made at the mid-points of the diaphyses of the metacarpals. Th{ operator positioned the vertical cursor on the periosteal and endosteal boun· 31 daries, recording the position at the push of a button. The computer calculated the mean total width, mean medullary width, and mean cortical width for the six metacarpals measured for each patient. 1 mm) were found to be comparable with those using calipers (Horsman and Simpson, 1975). , 1959). Systematic inaccuracies and imprecision occur in radiographic photodensitometry because of inherent limitations in the use of x-ray tubes and generators.

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