By Armand B Cognetta, William M. Mendenhall

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Extra resources for Radiation Therapy for Skin Cancer

Sample text

5). The energy of the high-speed electron must be higher than the binding energy of the target electron with which it interacts in order to achieve the ejection of the target electron; both electrons will then leave the atom. The amount of electronic energy that is converted into X-radiation depends on two factors: the atomic number (Z) of the anode material and the energy of the electrons. Although this process can take place in both low-Z and high-Z atoms, only for high-Z atoms are the binding energies sufficient to produce radiation in the X-ray portion of the electromagnetic spectrum [3].

B. Cognetta Jr. M. Wolfe 48 Table 5 Primary tumor (T) for eyelid carcinoma TX T0 Tis TX T1 Primary tumor cannot be assessed No evidence of primary tumor Carcinoma in situ Primary tumor cannot be assessed Tumor ≤5 mm in greatest dimension Not invading the tarsal plate or eyelid margin T2a Tumor >5 mm but not >10 mm in greatest dimension Or, any tumor that invades the tarsal plate or eyelid margin T2b Tumor >10 mm but not >20 mm in greatest dimension Or, involves full thickness eyelid T3a Tumor >20 mm in greatest dimension Or, any tumor that invades adjacent ocular or orbital structures Any T with perineural tumor invasion T3b Complete tumor resection requires enucleation, exenteration, or bone resection T4 Tumor is not resectable because of extensive invasion of ocular, orbital, craniofacial structures, or brain Reprinted with permission from AJCC: Carcinoma of the Eyelid.

7th ed. New York, NY: Springer, 2010, pp 301–14 Table 3 Regional lymph nodes (N) for cutaneous carcinoma NX N0 N1 N2 Regional lymph nodes cannot be assessed No regional lymph node metastases Metastasis in a single ipsilateral lymph node, ≤3 cm in greatest dimension Metastasis in a single ipsilateral lymph node, >3 cm but ≤6 cm in greatest dimension; or in multiple ipsilateral lymph nodes, ≤6 cm in greatest dimension; or in bilateral or contralateral lymph nodes, ≤6 cm in greatest dimension N2a Metastasis in a single ipsilateral lymph node, >3 cm but ≤6 cm in greatest dimension N2b Metastases in multiple ipsilateral lymph nodes, ≤6 cm in greatest dimension N2c Metastases in bilateral or contralateral lymph nodes, ≤6 cm in greatest dimension N3 Metastasis in a lymph node, >6 cm in greatest dimension Reprinted with permission from AJCC: Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and other cutaneous carcinomas.