By Vadim Glebovsky

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32 [35,36]. Figure 331 TD RD (a) (b) (c) Figure 31. (a) Orientation mapping image, grain size distribution, and area fraction map of deposit annealed at 300°C. 07 nm (3 times mean grain size). 45 nm (5 times mean grain size) [59]. 5772/59724 Figure 332 TD RD (a) (b) (c) Figure 32. (a) Orientation mapping image (left), grain size distribution (center), and area fraction map (right) of the deposit annealed at 500°C. 97 nm (3 times mean grain size). 95 nm (5 times mean grain size) [59]. 00691 GPa–1 at 550 K [63].

The number density of corners is higher in the pattern area than in the blanket area. Therefore, the grain growth is faster in the pattern area than in blanket area [41]. The black lines which are related to blanket area are not clearly seen in Figure 19 because of the smaller width of blanket area [41]. To conclude, the initial grain size is not larger than 15 nm and the grain growth occurs even at room temperature. This phenomenon is related to the texture evolution of interconnects, as will be discussed later [41].

A) Orientation mapping image (left), grain size distribution (center), and area fraction map (right) of the deposit annealed at 500°C. 97 nm (3 times mean grain size). 95 nm (5 times mean grain size) [59]. 00691 GPa–1 at 550 K [63]. 2 GPa at 550 K. In fact, Mε <100> and Mε <111> are the minimum and maximum values, respec‐ tively. Note that, as temperature increases, strain energy anisotropy also increases. 39 40 Recrystallization in Materials Processing é -k ê 2 h + k2 ê ê - hl aij = ê 2 2 ê h + k h2 + k 2 + l2 ê h ê 2 êë h + k 2 + l2 h 2 h +k - kl 2 h2 + k 2 h2 + k 2 + l2 k h2 + k 2 + l2 ù ú ú ú h2 + k 2 ú 2 2 2 2 2 h +k h +k +l ú ú l ú úû h2 + k 2 + l2 0 (32) As revealed in Figure 29, the as-deposited film already underwent AGG with the <100> and <111> texture components contributing alike.

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