By Leonard Binder

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And to the extent that this group is sprung from the heart of the community itself, a large measure of individual moral responsibility was returned to ordinary believers. THE INSTITUTION OF THE 'ULAMA The rigidity of the traditional conception of Islamic law, stemming from the Islamic idea of the purpose of revelation and the notion of law as an exact science, was counterbalanced by the lack of a rigid hierarchy in the institution of the 'ulamd'. Anyone who studies the law can be an 'alim. Official appointments to judgeships (qa<;i) were insisted upon as the proper method for the establishment of Islam; but the 'ulamd' so appointed were not necessarily the most influential part of the institution nor even the most respected.

77. ' Apparently there is nothing in this theory which prevents its application to a Muslim nation-state in anticipation of its good behavior, nor is there anything that prevents its being appropriated by the Westernized middle classes to justify their own nationalism. Why did this not happen? Our answers to this question will explain the elements that eventually did go into the Islamic nationalist theory of the modernists. The attitudes and behavior of the 'Ulama' and the modernists are partly interdependent, but there are aspects of the traditional orientation of the 'ulamd' which created an inner momentum antagonistic to nationalism.

Nor should it be forgotten that it was during this same decade the "right of self-determination" for nations was admitted as a principle of international politics. The most striking change in a fundamental attitude of the Congress was in regard to the Hindu religion. This change is not so evident from explicit statements of policy as from the methods used and the explanations given for the implementation of that policy. The coalition between religious conservatives and political extremists, whose religious knowledge was both meager and at the same time greatly influenced by Western values, led to yet newer attempts at a restatement of Hindu religion.

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