By Rüdiger Brummer

Cosmetic emulsions exist this present day in lots of varieties for a wide selection of functions, together with face and hand lotions for regular, dry or oily epidermis, physique milks and creams, in addition to sun-block items. keeping an eye on them and their homes isn't continually effortless regardless of informative product names or partial names (e.g. hand or face cream) that essentially point out their use and houses. This sensible handbook offers an in depth review that describes the most important houses and explains tips to degree them utilizing sleek suggestions. Written by means of knowledgeable in flows and move homes, it specializes in the appliance of rheological (flow) measurements to beauty and nutrients emulsions and the correlation of those effects with findings from different tests.

Beginning with a short heritage of rheology and a few primary rules, the handbook describes intimately using sleek viscometers and rheometers, together with concise motives of different to be had tools. however the concentration is still on sensible daily lab methods: the way to represent beauty and foodstuff emulsions with diverse rheological assessments equivalent to temperature, time, pressure and pressure, either static and dynamic. additionally the serious subject of ways the implications correlate with different vital product features, for example, dermis sensation, pumping functionality, balance and so forth. is punctiliously explored. Many photos, illustrations, graphs and tables aid readers new to the size of beauty emulsions of their day-by-day paintings in addition to to the more matured who search extra distinctive suggestions and tricks.

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42) The phase angle δ gives the shift in the response oscillation on the time axis. 2 Ideal Elastic Solids The shear stress curve for an ideal solid is sinusoidal and in phase with the strain curve. The material-specific shear modulus is the quotient τ/γ . 43) Since the shear stress and strain are proportional, GE is a constant. 3 Ideal Viscous Fluids An ideal fluid responds to a sinusoidally applied strain with a shear stress that is proportional to the shear rate. The phase lag between the shear stress and the strain is π/2.

5 to 4◦ are used for measurements. The preferred angle is 1◦ . e. 6 to 20 µm relative to the virtual gap). This not only has the advantage that a constant shear rate prevails throughout the gap of the CP measuring system but also allows measurement of relatively high shear rates, small sample amounts and easy cleaning. But the CP model likewise has one minor disadvantage. Liquids like water are very difficult to handle on the bottom plate because they tend to run off the plate (no raised rim). During the measurement, at the latest, the sample will be expelled from the measuring gap by centripetal forces.

After the maximum shear stress is exceeded a sharp decrease in the viscosity takes place. Above the flow threshold a Bingham model is characterized by a linear relationship between the shear stress and the shear rate (Fig. 3). For a Casson material there is also a relationship between the shear stress and shear rate above the yield stress, but in this case it is non-linear (Fig. 4). Other mathematical models besides those of Bingham and Casson [36] that describe specific sub-regions of the measuring curve include those of Newton, Steiger/Ory, Ostwald.

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