By Luciano Floridi

Can wisdom supply its personal justification? This sceptical problem - often called the matter of the criterion - is likely one of the significant matters within the background of epistemology, and this quantity presents its first entire examine, in a span of time that is going from Sextus Empiricus to Quince. After a necessary creation to the notions of information and of philosophy of information, the ebook presents a close reconstruction of the historical past of the matter. There follows a conceptual research of its logical beneficial properties, and a comparative exam of a phenomenology of resolution which have been urged through the historical past of philosophy so as to triumph over it, from Descartes to Popper. during this context, an oblique method of the matter of the criterion is defended because the so much profitable method opposed to the sceptical problem.

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Here the issue is not really significant, since our present interest is in the nature of epistemology only. Hence, within the limits of this chapter, one may consider-besides epistemology--only a limited number of standard members of L4' such as Neurology, nature and value of epistemology (cf. F. H. Bradley, "A Defence of Personalism in Psychology", Mind 9 (1900), pp. 26-45) should not mislead us. ON THE NATURE OF EPISTEMOLOGY 51 Physiology, Cognitive Psychology, AI or Sociology of Knowledge, as a list of examples large enough to allow any satisfactory comparison of approaches that any reader may wish to draw.

Knowledges; on the basis of the following equation: • D4) the outcome of the process of knowing =def. knowledge as a result =def. knowledges; we can re-write F 2 thus: • F 3) (9\ (8, 0)) produces the class of knowledges. The following observations may be read as concerning the nature first of the class of knowledges-by discussing what 0 and 8 can be from a logical point of view-and then of the whole process of knowing. 3. Expressions vs. Studies ofKnowledge F 3 allows us to speak of all the instances of human knowledge {K 1, K 2, ••• K n } as members of a finite class of countable instances of knowledge (L).

At this point, the whole set of knowledges L turns out to be organised into four proper subsets (see fig. 1): • L], consisting of all the subjective K-expressions; 44 CHAPTER TWO • L2' consisting of all the subjective K-studies; • L3' consisting of all the public K-expressions; and • L4' consisting of all the public K-studies. In the following sections, I shall resort to this taxonomy in order to elucidate the nature of epistemology in relation to other cognitive sciences. e. e. to L], the conclusions reached for L3.

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