By Jeff Kenna, Bill Gillet

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This means that the efficiency of a pump of fixed piston diameter increases with head and therefore for optimum efficiency different diameter pumps need to be used for different heads. At high heads the frictional forces become small relative to the hydrostatic forces and consequently at high heads positive displacement pumps can be more efficient than centrifugal pumps. At lower heads, below about 15m, the total hydrostatic forces are low in relation to the frictional forces and henee positive displacment pumps are less efficient and less likely to be used.

45 - The array ratings shown have been calculated for a daily average cell operating temperature of 4O’C and a system without power conditioning, which has a 10% loss in energy due to the mismatch between the PV array and the electric motor. If power conditioning is included, the required array rating would smaller than the values shown in Figure 19, but the reduction in size is unlikely to exceed 5 to 10%. For the example system: (see dotted line on the nomogram). 2 metre lift will have a typical subsystem daily energy efficiency of 30%.

M because it is well matched to the array. In the afternoon further temperature increases and matching losses reduce trre array efficiency, but as the array cools down in the late afternoon its efficiency increases. m. with a cut-out threshold of 300 h/m 2. The subsystem energy efficiency is 50% and the pump provides 40 m3 during the day. m. m because of temperature increases. The PV efficiency is higher than for system A because of the impedance matching electronics in the inverter. The subsystem efficiency follows a similar pattern to System A.

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