By S. G. Aleksandrov

S.G. Aleksandrov, R.Ye. Federov
English Pages: 269
Sovetskiye Sputniki I Kosmicheskiye Korabli,
2nd variation, Moscow 1961, Akademiy Nauk SSSR

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Since satellite deeleration occurs mainly near the perigee, this results in deoreased satellite lifetime. For an orbit with an apogee height of 800 km and a perigee height of 250 km, a 1 ° error in the angle at the end of the ejection phase decreases the perigee by 25 km, oausing a two-fold deorease in the lifetime of the satellite. o of the apogee and unchanged perigee heighit. with inoreasing height For an orbit with a perigee of 250 km and an apogee of 1500 km, the perigee deoreases by 13 km due to the same error in the ejeotion angle as above.

The development of nuclear technology has made it possible to discuss the creation, in the near future, of nuolear-powered space vehicles. The thermal energ7 in such engines, developed by some sort of nuclear reactor, will be used to heat some working liquid (hydrogen, ammonia, water), oonverting it to a hih-temperature gas which will flow from a nossle, oreating exhaust thrust. the basic advantage of such engines over ohenioal-fuel engines is the possibility of producing higher jet velocities (specific thrust), since the energy imparted to the working liquid in the reactor can considerably exoceed 50 the ae'lW voleased during the oombustion of even the most highly effeotive chemical fuels.

Is evident that, depending on the value Vu/eo there is a certain number of stages which assures a minimum ratio between rocket weight and payload weight. In addition, it also follows from the graphs that a single-stage rocket (m * 1) oanot have the velocity necessary for eJeoting a satellite into orbit if it does not have an exhaust velocity greater than 5000 rn/see, which in impossible for modern oheical-fuel rockets. The family of curves which corresponds to rockets with various number of stages has an envelope (dashed line in Fig.

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