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Remaining C 2p-orbital can overlap with 0 2p-orbitals to form a n-bond in each of three ways corresponding to the resonance structures. Therefore, each carbon-oxygen bond can be viewed as one a-bond and one-third of a n-bond. 9 Molecular Orbitals (MOs) • MO theory � � • In MO theory, electrons occupy MOs that are delocalized over the entire molecule. In VB theory, bonding electrons are localized between the two atoms. Molecular Orbitals (MO) � Formed by superposition (linea r combination) of atomic orbitals (LCAO-MO) (constructive interference): Increased amplitude or electron density between atoms Antibond ing orbital (destructive interference): Decreased amplitude or electron density between atoms � Bonding orbital � • Types of Molecular Orbitals � energy lower than that of the constituent AOs energy equal to that of the constituent AOs Antibonding MO: energy greater than that of the constituent AOs Bonding MO: � Nonbonding MO : � • Rules for combining AOs to obtain MOs � � • N atomic orbitals (AOs) yield N molecular orbitals (MOs) Little overlap of inner shell AOs, and these MOs are usually nonbonding.

6 Gas Density Molar concen tration • Molar concentration at STP n -- - P RT n = - = - • -7 2 9 8. 4 1 4 1 L . 46 l 48x l O-2 mol . 8 Use mole-to-mole calculations as described in Sections L and M, and convert to gas volume by using the ideal gas law. 7 and the fol lowing self-test exercises in the text. NH 4N03 (s) - N 2 0 (g) + 2 H 2 0 (g) A total of three moles of gas products is produced from one mole of solid. M ixtu res of Gases Mixtures of nonreacting gases behave as if only a single component were present.

Hyd rated compo u nds -7 • Attachment of water molecules to ions (cations and anions) Water molecules are polar and have an electric dipole moment 11. A small positive charge on each H atom attracts anions and a small negative charge on the 0 atom attracts cations. Lt and Na+ (small) tend to form hydrated compounds. -7 K+ , Rb+ , and Cs + (larger) tend not to form hydrates. -7 NH/ ( 1 43 pm) is simi lar in size to Rb + ( 1 49 pm) and forms anhydrous compounds. Charge effects -7 Ba2+ and K+ are similar in size, yet Ba2+ (larger charge) forms hydrates.

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