By Karl Maramorosch, John J. McKelvey
Subviral Pathogens of vegetation and Animals: Viroids and Prions.
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Extra info for Subviral Pathogens of Plants and Animals: Viroids and Prions
O. ( 1 9 8 2 ) . Etiology of planta macho, a viroid disease of tomato. Phytopathology 72, 49-54. , Raba, M . L. ( 1 9 7 8 ) . Nucleotide sequence and secondary structure of potato spindle tuber viroid. Nature (London) 273, 203-208. , Lossow, C , Ramm, D . L. ( 1 9 8 2 ) . Nucleotide sequence and secondary structure of citrus exocortis and chrysanthemum stunt virus. Eur. J. Bioehem. 121, 249-257. J. , Ramm, Κ. L. ( 1 9 8 1 ) . A severe and a mild potato spindle tuber viroid isolate differ in 3 nucleotide exchanges only.
S. A. Mohamed and R. Bautista, unpublished results; Anon, 1982; Mohamed and Imperial, 1 9 8 3 ) . Although CCI S was apparently the most infectious form, the significance of the apparently different estimates of infectivity is not known because no clear relationship between the concentration of inoculum and its infectivity has been established in the transmission trials. The transmission rates may be determined by the number or site of injections rather than the concentration of ccRNA in the inoculum.
T. RUNIA 28 f O Brien, 1962). It is also evident that PSTV reaches for higher titers and symptoms are expressed earlier when plants are grown at relatively high temperatures such as 30 to 35 °C, than at lower temperatures (Singh and O'Brien, 1 9 7 0 ) . Sanger, and Ramm (1975) found a more than 500 fold increase in viroid yield by rising the growth temperature of Gynura plants i n fected with CEV from 15 to 35° C. Under their condition of high temperature severe symptoms usually appear 10 to 14 days after inoculation, whereas it may take 2 to 3 months at 18 to 20°C.