By Larry Hancock
Shock assault explores sixty plus years of army and terror threats opposed to the us. It examines the intelligence instruments and practices that supplied warnings of these assaults and evaluates the us' responses, either in preparedness -- and most significantly -- the effectiveness of our army and nationwide command authority. opposite to universal claims, the historic list now exhibits that warnings, frequently very stable warnings, have preceded just about all such assaults, either family and foreign. Intelligence practices constructed early within the chilly warfare, in addition to intelligence assortment recommendations have continually produced exact warnings for our nationwide defense choice makers. shock assault lines the evolution and alertness of these practices and explores why such warnings have usually did not both interdict or intercept genuine attacks. Read more...
summary: shock assault explores sixty plus years of army and terror threats opposed to the us. It examines the intelligence instruments and practices that supplied warnings of these assaults and evaluates the USA' responses, either in preparedness -- and most significantly -- the effectiveness of our army and nationwide command authority. opposite to universal claims, the ancient checklist now exhibits that warnings, frequently very reliable warnings, have preceded just about all such assaults, either household and foreign. Intelligence practices constructed early within the chilly warfare, in addition to intelligence assortment suggestions have continually produced actual warnings for our nationwide defense selection makers. shock assault lines the evolution and alertness of these practices and explores why such warnings have frequently did not both interdict or intercept genuine assaults
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Extra info for Surprise attack : from Pearl Harbor to 9/11 to Benghazi
Several of the embassies had even been ordered to totally destroy their own diplomatic code translation machines. Both Admiral Kimmel in Hawaii and Admiral Hart in the Philippines were advised of the actions of the Japanese embassies. 10 While many Japanese carriers and submarines had “gone missing,” signals tracking did indicate a concentration of naval forces in the vicinity of both Taiwan and Indochina; large numbers of ships had formed into convoys. That very large flotilla was designated the “South Expeditionary Force” and appeared to be in the process of moving.
As in Hawaii, the Philippines did have operational radar units and an air warning service linked to P-40 pursuit aircraft. 11 A September 1941 practice exercise of the air warning system resulted in the total failure of the air defense, validating Brereton’s concerns. Even with general warning of an incoming air attack exercise, the ground-controlled intercept network totally failed to put fighters in contact with a simulated attack on the major American air base at Clark Field. The failure exposed the fact that even with radar detection, extensive practice between ground controllers and interceptor pilots is necessary to bring about successful interceptions—especially when the radar does not have a height-finding capability as the early units did not.
For a variety of reasons, no such inquiries were made with regard to the disastrous first-day losses in the Philippines. A number of authors have dealt with the personalities and issues of the Pearl Harbor failure; those inquiries and the questions of responsibility are a story in themselves. Readers are referred to Gordon Prange, Donald Goldstein and Katherine Dillon’s Pearl Harbor: The Verdict of History as the most detailed and objective study of those issues. For our purposes it is most important to evaluate both attacks in the strictly military issues of command, control and communications—referred to in contemporary military terminology as C3.