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Additional info for The Biology and Troubleshooting of Facultative Lagoons
However, with increasing photosynthetic activity, alkalinity decreases as algae use it as a carbon substrate. The decrease in alkalinity results in an increased pH, and pH may exceed 10. In the absence of sunlight, photosynthesis stops and alkalinity increases as carbon dioxide released by cellular activity of bacteria and algae increases in the facultative lagoon. Also, in the absence of photosynthetic activity, the concentration of dissolved oxygen is depleted through aerobic respiration. • Nutrient removal through assimilation of ammonium (NH4+) and orthophosphate (H2PO4−/HPO42−) • Odor control through the oxidation of offensive volatile compounds, including hydrogen sulfide (H2S) • Pathogen destruction through ultraviolet radiation and other natural processes In the aerobic zone, cBOD is transformed into new bacterial cells (sludge) and degraded to nonpolluting wastes (carbon dioxide and water) and less polluting wastes including ammonium (NH4+), nitrate (NO3−), orthophosphate (HPO42−/H2PO4−), and sulfate (SO42−).
10). The dominant form of reduced sulfur (HS− and H2S) is determined by the pH of the lagoon. Hydrogen sulfide is dominant at pH values less than 7, while sulfide is the dominant form of reduced sulfur at pH values greater than or equal to 7. Hydrogen sulfide is toxic to nitrifying bacteria, and sulfide promotes the growth of the filamentous organisms Beggiatoa, Thiothrix, and type 021N. 10) Sulfate and sulfides also serve as the sulfur nutrient for microbial growth. Under an aerobic condition, sulfate is the sulfur nutrient.
Other examples include groundwater recharge and the production of snow. Effluent is not discharged to a receiving body of water. Hydrographic controlled discharge is used for lagoons that discharge directly to a surface water. Instrumentation is used to measure the level and quality of wastewater to be discharged and the surface water as well as the rate of flow of the surface water to identify the most favorable conditions or times for discharge. Because algae move vertically through the water column in response to diurnal variation in light, the relative abundance of algae and respective particulate BOD and TSS values at the surface of the lagoon are high during light hours and conversely low during dark hours.
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