By Abbas Kazmi, Peter Shuttleworth, James H Clark, George A Kraus, Andrzej Stankiewicz, Lucy Nattrass, Vitaliy Budarin, Enzo Montoneri, Lorenzo Herrero-Davila, Antoine Rouilly

The world’s inhabitants is expected to arrive nine billion via 2050 and this can raise foodstuff call for to degrees by no means visible ahead of. this may suggest an important raise in foodstuff co-products that are considered as a waste or have low-value functions. those co-products are a source that are utilised for the creation of value-added chemical substances and fabrics. for instance orange peels include a excessive focus of 'Pectins' which whilst extracted can be utilized as gelling brokers within the meals undefined. This ebook makes a speciality of key parts of the grocery store similar to cereals, oils, fruit and greens, dairy, meat and marine items across the world. The e-book discusses sizzling processing applied sciences reminiscent of microwave pyrolysis, fermentation and supercritical CO2 extraction.

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WRAP, 2010. 01/12/2013 15:26:41. 1 Introduction to the Biorefinery Concept In order to achieve sustainable development mankind needs to move away from petrochemical feedstocks to renewable alternatives. 2 This method of biofuel production has received much negative attention due to competition with food production, use of valuable fertile agricultural land and intensive resource demands. Lignocellulosic biomass has the potential to provide up to 30% of US transport fuel demand without interfering with food supplies.

34. T. Valliyappan, N. N. Bakhshi and A. K. Dalai, Bioresource Technology, 2008, 99, 4476–4483. 35. W. Bu¨hler, E. Dinjus, H. J. Ederer, A. Kruse and C. Mas, J. Supercritical Fluids, 2002, 22, 37. 36. P. J. Slininger and R. J. Bothast, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 1985, 50, 1444–1450. 01/12/2013 15:26:33. 1 Introduction Food waste includes food discarded during production, distribution, preparation and consumption. It comprises materials such as meat trimmings, bones and carcasses; fruit and vegetable trimmings, cores and rinds; leftover prepared meals, and out-of-date or spoilt ingredients.

A recent paper by Silva et al. 27 This report identifies various microbial reaction pathways to produce many chemicals from glycerol-derived platform chemicals. 1 Aqueous Phase Reforming One of the major achievements in glycerol chemistry is the development of aqueous phase reforming processes (APR) that involve the conversion of glycerol to hydrogen and carbon monoxide (synthesis gas). 28 This process can also theoretically produce high yields of View Online . 1039/9781849737326-00001 Green Chemistry and the Biorefinery 21 hydrogen from glycerol at low CO concentrations due to favourable water-gas shift (WGS) thermodynamics.

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