By D. A. Washbrook

This e-book examines a huge interval of transition within the political constitution of South India. the 1st three-quarters of a century of British rule, right down to the 1870s, had successfully torn aside and fragmented the political associations of the South, and had left a hugely parochial political society within which loyalties seldom prolonged past face-to-face relationships and gear used to be super localized. This loss of major supra-local political connections contributed to the Madras Presidency's recognition because the such a lot 'benighted' of all Indian provinces.

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7, 1 0 - 1 1 . Ibid. 28 In 1882, Crole was made Collector of Madura and turned over his administration to his friends. S. Subramania Iyer became municipal vice-chairman;29 Kotaswami Thevar vice-president of the Local Board;30Sankara, another son of Subbayya Iyer, obtained the valuable receivership of the Sivaganga zamindari;31 R. Ramasubba Iyer, Subbayya's nephew, became public prosecutor. 34 In many ways, he was the raja of Madura, making his own policy and using his friends as his own administrators.

Crole, Collector of Madura, and J. H. Garstin, Member of the Board of Revenue. P & J File 2057 of 1886. L. See P & J Files 1886 of 1886 and 1095 of 1887. L. G. F . J. Richards, Salem (Madras, 1918), 1, pt 2, 7 1 . G. H . R. Pate, Tinnevelly (Madras, 1917), 1, 319. G. Francis, Madura, 1, 209. S. M . Raja R a m a Rao, Sir Subramania Aiyer. E. L. (Trichinopoly, 1914), 27 pp. 7, 1 0 - 1 1 . Ibid. 28 In 1882, Crole was made Collector of Madura and turned over his administration to his friends. S. Subramania Iyer became municipal vice-chairman;29 Kotaswami Thevar vice-president of the Local Board;30Sankara, another son of Subbayya Iyer, obtained the valuable receivership of the Sivaganga zamindari;31 R.

Sometimes these activities might appear to be part of a farce, as when Sir Henry Montgomery appointed his butler, Muthuswami Naicker, a tahsildar,39 but at other times they were deadly serious. Many of the communal rumblings which were reverberating through the presidency during our period can be traced to the independent service policies of district revenue officials. In Salem in 1882, for example, the Collector's avowed sympathy with and support of Muslims was a contributing factor to religious rioting.

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