By Michael J. Sadowsky, Richard L. Whitman

Fecal micro organism have classically been used for the choice of water security, sanitary approach functioning and environmental overall healthiness. it really is now obvious that the micro organism, either the indicator micro organism and fecal micro organism extra ordinarily, are ubiquitous and that different determinants of safeguard are required. This quantity, which makes a speciality of indicator organisms but in addition extra commonly on fecal micro organism, studies the cutting-edge, and should be of curiosity not just to simple scientists yet to these in lots of fields who practice the technology to regulate environments and human overall healthiness.

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J. Water Health 6:411-421. Janda, J. , and S. L Abbott. 2006. Historical perspectives on the family Enterobacteriaceae, p. 1-5. In J. M. Janda and S. L. ), T h e Enterobacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. Jiang, S. , W. Chu, B. H. Olson, J. W. He, S. Choi, J. Zhang, J. Y. Le, and P. B. Gedalanga. 2007. Microbial source tracking in a s m a l l southern California urban watershed indicates wild animals and growth as the source of fecal bacteria. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 76:927-934. Kabler, P.

T. Staley. 1985. , prospective indicator bacteria. Appl. Environ. Microbial. 49: 148-1 50. , and C. Philips. 2009. The ecology, epidemiology and virulence of Enterococcus. Microbiol. 155~1749-1757. Fujioka, R. S. 2001. Monitoring coastal marine waters for spore-forming bacteria of fecal and soil origin to determine point from non-point source pollution. Water Sci. Technol. 44:181-188. , and F. Archibald. 2001. The ecology of “fecal indicator” bacteria commonly found in pulp and paper mill water systems.

Although they can tolerate oxygen, they are facultative anaerobes that follow the EmbdenMeyerhof-Parnas homofermentative pathway for metabolism. These bacteria produce L (+) lactic acid from glucose fermentation at an optimal growth temperature of 35°C. Their cell wall is associated with glycerol teichoic acid antigen (D antigen), although detection of this antigen in some species is hfficult. , 2003). Based on DNA-DNA hybrihzation, 16s r RNA sequencing, and cell protein analysis, this genus is comprised of 23 species with a G+C composition of 38 to 45 mol% (Hardie and Whiley, 1997).

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