By Ranbir Vohra

Revised to surround advancements via to the tip of the 20 th century, this can be a research of India's advanced heritage and society. the writer perspectives the improvement of Indian civilization by way of the socio-religious conflicts and traditions via time, and their influence on political tradition.

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Nehru also felt that, in the larger interest of the future of the nation, it was the duty of the Hindus, as a majority community, to overlook or at least not respond in kind to Muslim communalism. "The danger to India," he said shortly before Page 4 his death, "is not communism. " 3On another occasion, Nehru had remarked that communalism meant "the dominance of one religious community.... "4 Nehru's admonitions had no impact on the country or, for that matter, even on the great Congress Party of which he was the prime leader, and India witnessed an ubiquitous politicization of religion and the communalization of politics in the post-Nehru era.

The Muslims, who had accepted the fact that they could not convert the Hindus, allowed the Hindus to continue to live Page 16 their orthodox caste lives undisturbed; and the Hindus, too, had reconciled themselves to the fact that they had to coexist with a people following an anti-Hindu religion. The Hindus, however, were never allowed to forget that they were second-class citizens of the empire; Aurangzeb (1658-1707), the last great Mughal ruler, reimposed the hated poll tax (jizya) on the Hindus and razed several Hindu temples and built mosques on their sites.

The important political difference between the two countries was that in China the assimilation meant the continuity of a unified, centrally administered state, whereas in India it meant a proliferation of independent kingdoms. Even the two attempts made by Hindu rulers (Guptas, 320-480; Harsha, 606-647) to repeat the Mauryan experiment resulted only in loose-knit empires limited to north Indiathe rulers exercised suzerainty over local dynasties and never established a Chinese-style centralized bureaucratic control system.

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