By Lucas J. Stal, Mariana Silvia Cretoiu
This e-book describes the cutting-edge in regards to the ‘marine microbiome’ and its makes use of in biotechnology. the 1st half discusses the range and ecology of marine microorganisms and viruses, together with all 3 domain names of existence: micro organism, Archaea, and Eukarya. It discusses no matter if marine microorganisms exist and, if this is the case, why they could be detailed. the second one half provides chosen marine habitats, their population and the way they impact biogeochemical cycles, whereas the 3rd discusses the usage of marine microbial assets, together with criminal facets, dissemination, and public awareness.
The marine microbiome is the entire of microorganisms and viruses within the ocean and seas and in any attached setting, together with the seafloor and marine animals and crops. the variety of microbial lifestyles is still unquantified and principally unknown, and will characterize a hidden treasure for human society. for that reason, this booklet is usually meant to attach lecturers and undefined, delivering crucial info for microbiologists from either fields.
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Extra resources for The Marine Microbiome: An Untapped Source of Biodiversity and Biotechnological Potential
2010). In the ocean, heterotrophic bacterioplankton plays the key role in the alteration and consumption of organic matter (Pomeroy et al. 2007) and consumes the major part of the daily primary production (Ducklow 2000). Primary production by microalgae and cyanobacteria constitutes the main source of organic carbon substrates of bacteria in the open ocean. However, concentrations of carbohydrate monomers and amino acids that can be taken up directly are only in the nanomolar range (Kirchman et al.
2014). In contrast, bacterial communities in the deep marine biosphere are dominated by Gammaproteobacteria, Chloroflexi, and members of the candidate phylum JS1, which together contribute an average of >50 % of all 16S rRNA gene sequences. Over half of the Archaea present in the deep marine biosphere belongs to the so-far uncharacterized groups the Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotal Group and the Marine Benthic Group B of Crenarchaeota. Thaumarchaeota, South African Gold Mine Euryarchaeotal Group and the Marine Benthic Group D of the Crenarchaeota represent the next most abundant groups (Parkes et al.
2003; Eilers et al. 2000). 2 h−1) that are independent of high substrate concentrations, are 32 J. Overmann and C. 1 µm3), lack motility, and have streamlined genomes and little regulatory flexibility (Lauro et al. 2009). The transcriptomes also reflect these two life strategies and show that the fast-growing bacterial taxa in bacterioplankton represent metabolic generalists and are strongly controlled by top-down mechanisms. In contrast, slow-growing, abundant taxa are characterized by metabolic specialization (Gifford et al.
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