By Geoffrey Ellis

Was once Napoleon the 'heir' of the French Revolution, the good consolidator of its reforms, or did he distort or even abandon its ideas? What have been the goals and results of Napoleonic rule in France and in conquered Europe extra largely?

This moment version of The Napoleonic Empire deals a serious reassessment of those critical matters and offers a clean synthesis of crucial learn in the past 40 years. starting with Napoleon's inheritance, Geoffrey Ellis balances the conflicting proof for switch or continuity through the years from the innovative upheaval to the peak of the 'Grand Empire'.

The new edition:
- covers the executive, army, social and fiscal features of the subject
- redefines the complete effect of Napoleonic imperialism in either the fast and longer term
- bargains extra broad assurance of Napoleon's remedy of the annexed lands and topic states of his Empire, in addition to of army conscription, desertion, and the position of the Gendarmerie within the warfare opposed to brigands and army defaulters
- offers an accelerated dialogue of the institutional legacy of Napoleonic rule in France and Europe

With an up-dated and extra entire bibliography, this completely revised textual content is a useful consultant to Napoleon's Europe and is perfect for professional and normal readers alike.

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Napoleon aimed to placate both groups and draw them into a common allegiance to himself, not least by the obligatory oath of loyalty to the Constitution. Thus on the one hand he allowed the Jacobins who had been deported in the Year III to return to France. On the other, he granted the same concession to former counter-revolutionary groups, first by repealing the law of hostages against the families of royalist emigres on 13 November 1799, and then by his amnesties to the emigres themselves on 2 March and 20 October 1800 and on 26 April 1802.

The law of 16 July 1806 set up the central service fund (Caisse de service), into which the receivers general were ordered to pay taxes as they were collected every ten days. In this way the service fund also found the wherewithal to issue bonds in its own name. The reorganisation of the treasury was equally farreaching, prompting one financial historian to remark that after Brumaire it was 'turned over to the executive' [56: 230]. The law of 21 January 1800 suppressed the former treasury commissioners and in their place set up a general directory (Direction generate du Tresor) under the authority of the ministry of finances.

For all that, clerical participation in teaching and in educational administration revived under the Empire, in public as well as private schools. Outwardly at least, it served the interests of the state and was consistent with the Concordat. The same principle of centralised control and standardisation was extended to the higher echelons of education, for instance at the Ecole Normale Superieure in Paris, which dated from the Revolution. The so-called 'Imperial University' first took theoretical shape as the 'University of France' in the law of 10 May 1806, but its practical formation came only after the enabling decree of 17 March 47 1808.

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