By Craig E. Blohm

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Extra info for The Palace of Versailles

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43 The Orangerie For hundreds of years before the time of Louis XIV, orange trees were prized in Europe for their fragrance and delicious fruit. Originating in southeast Asia thousands of years ago, sweet oranges were introduced to Europe during the fifteenth century by Portuguese traders. Louis was particularly fond of the aromatic delicacy and wanted to include orange trees at Versailles. But the delicate nature of the trees required a mild climate, and French winters would have killed the valuable trees.

Parterres were carpets, allées were lined with walls of greenery, and bosquets were arranged as outdoor rooms. . 28 The Jardin Bas had fourteen bosquets, each one featuring a different design. Work on the bosquets began in 1663, with the planting of trees forming the Bosquet of the Waterspout and the Bosquet of the Dauphin. Oak, beech, elm, and other types of mature trees were acquired from all over France, including some taken from Vaux-leVicomte, and replanted in the bosquets. Fountains adorned the bosquets, and pathWords in Context ways often arranged in geometric patterns domain crisscrossed the groves.

Horsepowered pumps, windmills, and reservoirs all proved inadequate for supplying enough water to the increasing number of fountains in the gardens. The Seine River, located about 5 miles (8 km) from Versailles, was the closest source of abundant water. But its banks were well below the level of the palace; some kind of massive machine would be needed to raise the Seine’s waters the 532 feet (162 m) needed to carry it to Versailles. The Marly machine was the solution to the problem. Designed by Arnold De Ville and Rennequin Sualem, the enormous wooden mechanism consisted of fourteen waterwheels straddling the Seine, each approximately 39 feet (12 m) in diameter.

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