By Sanjay Subrahmanyam

Within the Political economic climate of trade: Southern India 1500-1650 Sanjay Subrahmanyam explores the connection among long-distance exchange and the industrial and political constitution of southern India within the 16th and early 17th centuries. He questions the extra conventional perspectives that exterior call for used to be the strength at the back of pre-colonial Indian fiscal development or that exterior alternate used to be insignificant in quantitative and qualitative phrases in comparison with the vastness of the inner economic system. in its place, Dr Subrahmanyam authoritatively demonstrates the interplay among south Indian advancements and bigger foreign strategies inside definite monetary associations - such a lot significantly the community of promoting villages, nice coastal emporia and operations of revenue-farmers and 'portfolio' capitalists. This publication relies on large and formerly unused Portuguese and Dutch archival assets. Its secondary subject matter is to discover the connection among the documentation used and the context in which it used to be generated, hence illuminating how Europeans and Asians reacted to each other.

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In addition, however, we note that land newly brought under the plough was exempt in the first year from tax, and that in the second year, a fourth of produce would be taxed away, subject of course to the deduction of the ten items mentioned above. 71 XIX, 1959-60, pp. 163-76. Stein fails however to distinguish between the fiscal rights of temples and their rental collections, since he denies the existence of a distinction between the two in the period (cf. Peasant State and Society, p. 434). For a discussion of this problem, also see Tsukasa Mizushima, Nattar and the Socio-Economic Change in Tamilnadu in the 18th-19th Centuries, Tokyo, 1986.

V. Narayanaswami Naidu, Report of the Court of Enquiry into Labour Conditions in the Handloom Industry (Government of Madras), Madras, 1948, p. 6. 'It has been long believed that weaving may be pursued as a subsidiary occupation; it is an erroneous belief, except for a very small number of scheduled caste-weavers in certain places who mainly pursue agriculture but weave in the off-season. 55 Before concluding this section, we may note another set of activities: those related to mining and extraction.

31. ' . '. For a more or less comprehensive enumeration of manufacturing activities in southern India, based on early nineteenth-century evidence, see Dharma Kumar, The political economy of southern India 31 extrapolation of such evidence is a procedure of limited validity, suffice it to say for the present that most of these activities would either have occupied small numbers of people, or would have had implications for only a small sphere within which the goods circulated. This brief summary view of sub-regional specialisation in productive activity has been intended to highlight two points of interest.

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