By Dena Goodman

Within the first significant reinterpretation of the French Enlightenment in two decades, Dena Goodman strikes past the normal method of the Enlightenment as a bankruptcy in Western highbrow background and examines its deeper value as cultural historical past. She reveals the very epicenter of the Enlightenment in a group of discourse referred to as the Republic of Letters, the place salons ruled by means of girls complicated the Enlightenment undertaking "to swap the typical method of thinking." Goodman information the historical past of the Republic of Letters within the Parisian salons, the place women and men, philosophes and salonnieres, jointly not just brought reciprocity into highbrow existence throughout the practices of letter writing and well mannered dialog but additionally built a republican version of presidency that used to be to problem the monarchy. delivering a brand new realizing of women's value within the Enlightenment, Goodman demonstrates that during the Republic of Letters women and men performed complementary - and unequal - roles. Salonnieres ruled the Republic of Letters via imposing principles of well mannered dialog that made attainable a discourse characterised via liberty and civility. Goodman chronicles the tale of the Republic of Letters from its earliest formation via significant classes of swap: the construction of the Encyclopedia, the proliferation of a print tradition that widened circles of readership past the regulate of salon governance, and the early years of the French Revolution. even if the legacy of the Republic of Letters remained a strength in French cultural and political lifestyles, within the 1780s males shaped new highbrow associations that asserted their skill to manipulate themselves and that marginalized girls. TheRepublic of Letters introduces provocative factors either for the failure of the Enlightenment and for the function of the Enlightenment within the French Revolution.

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Eisenstein, Grub Street Abroad: Aspects of the French Cosmopolitan Press from the Age of Louis XIV to the French Revolution (Oxford , 1 99 2 ) ; Eisenstein, Print Culture and Enlightenment Thought. Important exceptions to this rule were the printers of the Encyclopedie, Le B reton and Panckoucke, both of whom operated in Paris. 3 4 . Eisenstein , Print Culture and Enlightenment Thought, p. 1 0 ; Eisenstein , Grub Street A broad, pp. 38-39. 3 5 . Quoted in Dibon, " Universite de Leyde," p. 28. THE R I S E OF THE STATE tween letters and state leaders, showing the extent to which the former depend on the latter.

Popkin (Berkele y, 1 987 ) , p. 76. 33. Febvre and Martin , Coming of the Book, pp. 1 43-59 ; Elizabeth L. Eisenstein, Grub Street Abroad: Aspects of the French Cosmopolitan Press from the Age of Louis XIV to the French Revolution (Oxford , 1 99 2 ) ; Eisenstein, Print Culture and Enlightenment Thought. Important exceptions to this rule were the printers of the Encyclopedie, Le B reton and Panckoucke, both of whom operated in Paris. 3 4 . Eisenstein , Print Culture and Enlightenment Thought, p.

Jean Le Rond d'Alembert, "Essai sur la societe des gens de lettres et des grands, sur la reputation, sur les mecenes, et sur les recompenses litteraires," in Oeuvres completes (Paris, 1 8 2 2), 4 : 3 3 7 , hereafter cited in the text. T H E R I S E O F THE STATE 37 that of superficially educated noblemen (340-4 7). I n addition, d'A lem­ bert distinguished between the vanity and sensitivity to insult which generated pointless and damaging querelles among men of letters and the natural insecurity about the worth of their cultural productions which inspired them to seek the esteem of others.

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