By Constantina Katsari

The Roman financial method used to be hugely complicated. It concerned professional Roman cash in either silver and bronze, which a few provinces produced whereas others imported them from mints in Rome and somewhere else, in addition to, within the East, a variety of civic coinages. it is a accomplished learn of the workings of the method within the jap provinces from the Augustan interval to the 3rd century advert, while the Roman Empire suffered a financial and monetary challenge. The japanese provinces exemplify the whole complexity of the procedure, yet comparisons are made with proof from the Western provinces in addition to with acceptable case reviews from different ancient instances and areas. The booklet might be crucial for all Roman historians and numismatists and of curiosity to a broader diversity of historians of economics and finance.

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Balancing the budget during the third century ad In order to determine whether military expenses dominated Roman imperial finances or not, the obvious chronological period that should be studied in more detail is the third century AD, when the emperors became more military-orientated. As early as the reign of Septimius Severus civil wars and military strife set the political characteristics for the whole of the third century. For eighteen years he spent most of his time and efforts fighting against the Parthians31 and the British,32 a policy that forced him to increase 28 30 32 29 Alston 1995: 112–15.

3–6; SHA, Alex. Sev. 55–56. Butler 1910. 46 SHA, Alex. Sev. 21. 9; SHA, Alex. Sev. 59. 42 Planning the financial policy of the Roman state lasting innovations. 50 After his murder by the soldiers,51 he was succeeded in 238 by Balbinus and Pupienus,52 who were eventually also killed by their soldiers. 60 The financial situation probably deteriorated further because of the internal conflicts of the emperor against Silbanacus, Pacatianus and Iotapianus. 63 After his death the new emperor, Trebonianus Gallus, fought against two fronts: (a) the Persians, who overran Mesopotamia to Antioch and took Armenia,64 and (b) the Goths, who crossed the Danube and plundered the northern provinces.

This way, we may detect circulation pools existing within or across the different provinces of the eastern Mediterranean. ) or administrative divisions; therefore, our results would have been too vague and even probably misleading. Instead, it is better to divide the provinces into four geographical groups: (1) Northern Balkans (Moesia, Pannonia, Dacia), (2) Greece (Achaea and Macedonia), (3) Asia Minor (all of its provinces from the Aegean Sea to Armenia) and (4) Syria. In the last area are included the provinces of Palestine (southern 74 Reece 1993: 864–7; 1996: 344.

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