By John Deigh

The essays during this assortment are excited about the psychology of ethical supplier. They specialise in ethical emotions and ethical motivation, and search to appreciate the operations and origins of those phenomena as rooted within the ordinary wishes and feelings of people. a massive characteristic of the essays, and person who distinguishes the ebook from such a lot philosophical paintings in ethical psychology, is the eye to the writings of Freud. An underlying topic of the quantity is a critique of influential, rationalist debts of ethical organization.

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The authorities, by ordering such treatment, display an attitude of indifference to the offender as a being capable of determining his conduct through choice, which attitude matches the one made institutional in the system of therapy Morris describes. Thus, just as that system shows a lack of respect for the choices of those subject to it, so the authorities we have imagined show no respect for the 22 ON THE RIGHT TO BE PUNISHED choice to do wrong our offender made. He may then, in recognizing their lack of respect, take their order as an affront to his dignity, and if he protested, it would be natural for him to give voice to this protest by asserting a right to be punished.

McTaggart, "Hegel's Theory of Punishment," Ethics 6 (1895-1896): 479-502. 29 THE SOURCES OF MORAL AGENCY criminal has by his act and by the fact of his guilt ruptured the social relations that exist between him and the other members of the community and so put himself at odds with them. Punishment, understood as expiatory, is then beneficial in that it facilitates reconciliation, a renewal of good relations. By submitting to punishment, the criminal restores to good order the social relations he ruptured and so becomes at one with those with whom he was formerly at odds.

This argument, however, this attempt to save the rationalists' conception of morality, serves only to flush out the difficulties that underlie the rationalist approach. For one thing, it manifests the general tendency of those who take this approach to formularize the judgment- and decision-making acts of human beings, and this tendency becomes a liability in cases of judgment and decision making that are highly sensitive to context and consequently not reducible to simple formulae. 9 What is more, these interpretations are most liable to yield implausible explanations in cases in which, because what judgment or decision a person makes depends on small or subtle differences in context, how he makes it is not reducible to some simple formula.

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