By Pranab Mukherjee

The Turbulent Years opens within the Eighties. Sanjay Gandhi is useless lower than unforeseen, tragic situations; no longer decades later, Indira Gandhi is assassinated; Rajiv Gandhi, ‘the reluctant politician’, all at once turns into India’s best Minister.

Pranab Mukherjee used to be witness to (and, occasionally, a player in) the momentous occasions of the Nineteen Eighties and the Nineties, a interval that used to be undoubtedly the main turbulent in India’s post-Independence heritage. An insider, he sheds new mild on each significant political incidence of the time—from Rajiv Gandhi’s ascendance as India’s major Minister to the emergence of P.V. Narasimha Rao because the chief of a state; from Operation Blue famous person to the Babri Masjid fiasco.
Equally, Mukherjee is candid approximately all of the specialist crises that marked this era of his career—the rumours that he desired to elbow apart Rajiv Gandhi for the head submit; the prospective purposes for his ouster from Rajiv’s cupboard and, later, the social gathering; and the allegation that he aided and abetted the Left by means of now not enforcing President’s rule in West Bengal and Tripura within the past due 1980s.
The moment quantity of Mukherjee’s autobiography is not just a decent account of his years in strength (and within the wilderness), but in addition a cogent research of the political and social turning issues of a key interval within the evolution of recent India.

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The public sector is present in a wide range of industrial and services sectors: chemicals, electronics, metals, engineering goods, textiles, transport equipment, minerals, telecommunications, financial institutions, tourism, etc. 6 Break-up of public sector enterprises by category No. Category I II Enterprises under construction Enterprises Manufacturing/Producing Goods 1. Steel 2. Minerals and Metals 3. Coal & Lignite 4. Power 5. Petroleum 6. Fertilizers 7. Chemicals & Pharmaceuticals 8. Heavy Engineering 9.

It was the government of Prime Minister Chandrashekhar that first announced a policy of disinvesting government equity in SOEs in the interim budget of 1991–2. It spoke of selling up to 20 per cent in such firms, that too to public-sector institutional investors. Thereafter, disinvestment evolved in the 1990s in a climate in which SOEs were, for the first time, subjected to a significant measure of competition, domestic as well as foreign. The disinvestment programme became part of an ambitious process of economic reforms covering industry, the external sector, the financial sector and agriculture, and also involving a programme of macro-economic stabilisation that commenced in 1991 under the government of Prime Minister Narasimha Rao, in which an economist, Manmohan Singh, was Finance Minister.

5, the SOE would be somewhere between excellent and good. The third section of the MOU spelt out the obligations on the part of the government towards the SOE and the assistance it was required to provide in order to enable the SOE to meet the desired objectives. This could be financial assistance, help in securing clearances from various authorities, tax concessions, approvals for raising funds, etc. An elaborate bureaucracy was created to carry out the task of evaluation. At the top was a committee comprising the cabinet secretary and other secretaries and senior bureaucrats.

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