By Arnold Sommerfeld

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They could be a major cause of discrepancy between expected and observed results. 10. As can be observed from the photograph, such systems are not elementary. 5 Progress in the Evaluation of Some Other Frequency Shifts Other various shifts enumerated above have also been addressed and progress has been made recently in their exact evaluation. The effect of Majorana transitions is difficult to identify among the other shifts present. However, changes in magnetic field and trimming by coils between the state selecting magnets and the cavity may be used to verify the presence of the undesirable effect to the level desired.

A The uncertainty given is that achieved in best circumstances and is given as a reference to the accuracy that may be achieved in practice. 3 Frequency Stability of the Cs Beam Standard The frequency stability of the Cs beam frequency standard depends on the averaging time, on factors such as modulation and frequency locking scheme and on the constancy of all the shifts enumerated above. 20) where: Ql is the atomic line Q S/N is the signal-to-noise ratio essentially limited by shot noise at the detector k′ is a factor close to unity 16 The Quantum Physics of Atomic Frequency Standards The range of application of this equation depends on the servo loop, integrating filter type and bandwidth.

It is interesting to follow the evolution of the assumptions and technique of determination of this distribution over the years. As briefly described above, this evolution started from the use of a Maxwell distribution (Harrach 1967) and went to the use of a distribution altered by cut-offs at both low and high speeds made necessary by the use of selector magnets (Mungall 1971). This was followed by an experimental approach that uses a numerical analysis of the response of the beam standard to pulsed radiofrequency (RF) excitation (Hellwig et al.

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