By Hunwick

The imperative textual content translated during this quantity is the "Ta'rikh Al'sudan" of the seventeenth century Timbuktu pupil 'Abd al-Rahman al-Sa'di. Thirty chapters are incorporated, facing the heritage of Timbuktu and Jenne, their students and the political background of the Songhay empire from the reign of Sunni 'Ali (1464-1492) via Moroccan conquest of Songhay in 1591 and all the way down to the 12 months 1613 while the Pashalik of Timbuktu turned an independent ruling establishment within the center Niger area. The 12 months 1613 additionally marked the potent finish of Songhay resistance. the opposite modern files integrated are a brand new English translation of Leo Africanus's description of West Africa, a few letters in terms of Sa-dian international relations and conquests within the Sahara and Sahel, al-Ifrani's account of Sa-dian conquest of Songhay, and an account of this excursion by way of an nameless Spaniard.

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Extra resources for Timbuktu and the Songhay Empire: Al-Sa'Di's Ta'Rikh Al-Sudan Down to 1613 and Other Contemporary Documents

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If we are right, as argued in Appendix 2 below, that the title Sunni is, in fact, Manding sd-nyi, meaning 'subordinate or confidant of the ruler', then the founder of this dynasty would have been a Malian official who revolted. e. a Malinke) himself. TS clearly sees 'Ali Kulun as a sort of nationalist hero, and in order for him to have led a breakaway Songhay he would have to have been himself Songhay. A possible explanation is that he was one of the Zuwa princes who had been left in place to govern his territory under the eye of a Malian official, and that he subsequently revolted and sought independence.

Old divisions plagued them, and the Moroccans were able to divide and rule, restricting their own territory to a thin line around the Niger from Jenne to Gao, and for the first twenty years constantly reinforced from Morocco. In the end, however, there was an implicit truce. The Moroccans were left in control of their swathe of the river Niger, while the Songhay who rallied to the successors of Askiya Ishaq 11 were left to run their own affairs in Dendi. Songhay Administration Askiya al-hiijj Muhammad inherited some sort of state administrative structure from his predecessor.

The heart of the empire he created was the Songhay-speaking territory from the region of Gao southwards to Dendi. What he added to this-the Timbuktu region, the Inland Delta and the northern lacustrine region, the Jenne region, and the Bandiagara uplandswere all non-Songhay territories, and except for the Bandiagara 57 On the history of Mali and its decline, see Levtzion (1973). SONGHAY: AN lN'IERPRETJYE ESSAY xxxix uplands, all inhabited by predominantly Muslim populations, often of long standing.

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