By Barry D. Kahan

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The elegant studies of Volpe (1970) and co-workers reinforce the conclusion that anuran amphibians possess a highly developed capacity for 40 W. H. Hildemann specific immune responses, which matures before metamorphosis to the adult state. Tissue transplantation immunity in the less advanced orders Apoda and Urodela has been investigated critically only during the last several years. First-set skin allografts exchanged between adults of the aquatic apodon or caecilian Typhlonectes compressicauda showed a median survival time of 29 days at 25°C (Cooper and Herrera, 1968).

In my judgment, the following conditions should be achieved: 18 Ψ. Η. Hildemann 1. Orthotopic rather than heterotopic grafting 2. Prolonged observation of transplants ( > 200 days if possible) to detect weak histoincompatibilities 3. Elevated environmental temperature, but within a range acceptable to each ectothermic test species 4. ) graft from isogenic or same donor These are really minimally sufficient conditions. Objective criteria for scoring rejection reactions and survival end points must be determined in relation to reactions evoked by control autografts or isografts.

Good and Papermaster, 1964; Chadwick, 1967). However, recent demonstrations of more specific humoral responses associated with well-defined immunity indicate a new look is in order, if not long overdue. Let us consider some positive results that do not involve mammaliantype immunoglobulins, but do depend on production of molecules that behave like antibodies. The large milkweed bug (order Hemiptera) responded to a single injection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa vaccine by producing circulating lysins shown to be responsible for increased specific resistance to bacterial infection (Gingrich, 1964).

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