By Abdus Salam

This is often an improved model of the 3rd Dirac Memorial Lecture, given in 1988 via the Nobel Laureate Abdus Salam. Salam's lecture provides an summary of the advancements in smooth particle physics from its inception on the flip of the century to the current theories looking to unify the entire primary forces. furthermore, formerly unpublished lectures via Paul Dirac, and Werner Heisenberg are integrated. those lectures supply a desirable perception into their method of learn and the advancements in particle physics at the moment. Nonspecialists, undergraduates and researchers will locate this a desirable publication. It includes a transparent advent to the main topics of particle physics and cosmology by way of some of the most amazing modern physicists.

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**Extra info for Unification of Fundamental Forces: The First 1988 Dirac Memorial Lecture**

**Example text**

We doubled the number of neutral messengers by postulating a new object, a "heavy photon" (called the Z°), which would then make up the desired triplet with W + , W~, Z° as messengers. The new "messenger" Z° would produce a new type of weak force between left-handed objects only: for example. (P + O L -> (P + O L or (p + v)L -> (p + v)L, or (v + p z ) -> (v + p) L , or (n + e") L -> (n + e") L , etc. This was fine, but with Z° treated this way one had lost all trace of unification of electromagnetism and the weak forces.

8 (a) The theorists (from left to right) Sheldon Glashow, Abdus Salam, and Steven Weinberg were awarded the 1979 Nobel Prize for Physics for their theoretical contribution to the unification of the weak and electromagnetic forces, (b) Carlo Rubbia (left) and Simon van der Meer (right) were awarded the 1984 Nobel Prize for Physics for their contribution to the experimental verification of the existence of the W and Z bosons which were first produced and detected at CERN in 1983.

Specifically, a new antiproton beam was created using what has now come to be called an antiproton accumulator. The antiproton p annihilates the p, producing a total energy in excess of what was needed for producing W + , W~ and Z°. This epic experiment by Van der Meer who engineered the p beam and Carlo Rubbia who engineered the whole enterprise won the first Nobel prize for CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) in 1984. Experiments are now planned at the new SLAC (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center) and the forthcoming LEP accelerators at CERN to measure the Z° mass to one-twentieth of one percent.

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