By James D. Wright, Peter H. Rossi, Joseph A. Pereira, Eleanor Weber-Burdin

The learn stated during this quantity used to be designed to supply estimates of the level of damages and accidents from yes natu­ ral risks inflicted on families within the usa. In addi­ tion, it experiences on assets of reduction proffered to families and the level to which there are alterations between families within the receipt of aid. This quantity represents the newest installment in a sequence of monographs stemming from the Social and Demographic Re­ seek Institute's (SADRI) application of analysis at the results of normal danger occasions within the usa. the 1st quantity in our sequence (Wright, Rossi, Wright, & Weber-Burdin, 1979) suggested at the long-range results of ordinary dangers at the inhabitants and housing shares of neighborhoods and groups. the second one quantity (Rossi et aI. , 1982) assessed the help for chance mitiga­ tion guidelines current between neighborhood and nation political elites in a pattern of states and native groups within the usa. the most findings of those monographs will be summarized as follows. First, long-range results (up to ten years postevent) of nat­ ural probability occasions are minimum: neighborhood groups and neighbor­ hoods which were impacted by way of floods, tornadoes, or hurricanes seem to be no diverse of their inhabitants and housing development styles over the interval 1960 to 1970 than similar commu­ nities that went unscathed. it appears, loved ones and communi­ ty assets plus outdoors reduction have been enough often to revive impacted parts to basic progress patterns.

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961). bRespondent indicated that all reported events never occurred or were too trivial for response. "(Total households with complete questionnaire + "never happened")/eligible HHs. 3% among earthquake victims. 3%. 1 %. The sharpest pattern revealed in this panel of the table is in the "never happened" category, with higher proportions registered for the more diffuse hazards (hurricane, tornado, and earthquake). Clearly, many people "experienced" such events without ever being "victimized" by them, a point confirmed in later analyses.

Several weeks after the third follow-up mailing, a number of households still had not responded. Each of these households was contacted by telephone and urged to complete and return the questionnaire. In cases where this telephone "reminder" proved inadequate and the household's questionnaire(s) still had not been received after a reasonable time, an effort was made to gather the relevant data directly over the phone. For this purpose, the mail questionnaire was edited down into two shorter versions.

Are there unintentional inequities in present relief and rehabilitation efforts, so that some victims are more likely to receive aid than others? And for those who receive assistance, how are the funds spent? What is the average "recovery time" for individual, family, and business victims? How long does it take for victims to be restored to their predisaster condition? Finally, what are the overall costs of natural hazards to their victims? And, of these costs, what share is 15 16 ESTIMATING HAZARD EVENTS AND CONSEQUENCES covered by governmental assistance, what share by private insurance, what share by voluntary relief agencies, and what share by the resources of the victims themselves?

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