By Stuart Hamilton, Ronnie McKenzie

Water administration and Water Loss features a choice of papers and articles written via numerous the world over acknowledged experts within the box of water loss aid. The articles were drawn jointly from IWA meetings in past times five years and supply info of the way water losses from Municipal distribution platforms could be diminished. The booklet offers beneficial history details and reference fabrics to aid clarify the several ways and interventions which are used to minimize water losses. a number of genuine case reports are only if spotlight the strategies and methodologies hired worldwide to lessen water losses. Water administration and Water Loss covers many points of water loss regulate together with, strain administration, leak detection and service, inner plumbing losses and retrofitting, neighborhood involvement and education/awareness, faculties schooling and leak fix initiatives.

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Example text

At the beginning of 2000, the water supplied to Khayelitsha was measured to be ±22 million m3/a. The level of leakage was estimated from the night-time water use to be almost three-quarters of the water supplied to the area. The Minimum Night flow (MNF) was measured to be in excess of 1600 m3/hr which is sufficient to fill an Olympic-sized swimming pool every hour. The main source of the leakage was identified as the household plumbing fittings which have been badly damaged through constant exposure to a relatively high pressures which could exceed 80 m at some times.

The zone is not particularly large but makes an interesting case study due to the fact that the pressure at the critical point is highly variable unlike the previous example where there was very little difference between peak demand pressure and off-peak pressure. 20, in which it can be seen that the PRV has been set to provide a fixed outlet pressure of ±52 m and the valve is indeed providing a stable and continuous pressure into the zone. 21, which clearly highlights a significant pressure variation between peak conditions and off-peak conditions.

It is the view of the author that if such tight pressure control is achievable through a normal fixed outlet PRV, then no further control is necessary unless the client decides that they wish to implement a lower level of minimum pressure during offpeak periods than required during the peak demand periods. 17 Critical point pressure after Fixed Outlet Pressure Control. 18 Flow savings from Fixed Outlet Pressure Control. 18 where the reduced water consumption is highlighted by the shaded area shown in blue.

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