By Black & Veatch Corporation

Content material:
Chapter 1 Chlorine: background, Manufacture, houses, risks, and makes use of (pages 1–67):
Chapter 2 Chemistry of Aqueous Chlorine (pages 68–173):
Chapter three selection of Chlorine Residuals in Water and Wastewater therapy (pages 174–229):
Chapter four Chlorination of Potable Water (pages 230–325):
Chapter five Chlorination of Wastewater (pages 326–362):
Chapter 6 Disinfection of Wastewater (pages 363–403):
Chapter 7 Chlorine touch Basin layout (pages 404–417):
Chapter eight Chlorine Feed structures (pages 418–451):
Chapter nine Hypochlorination—Sodium Hypochlorite (pages 452–527):
Chapter 10 On?Site Sodium Hypochlorite iteration approach (pages 528–571):
Chapter eleven Dechlorination (pages 572–593):
Chapter 12 technique Controls for Chlorination and Dechlorination (pages 594–677):
Chapter thirteen Operation and upkeep (pages 678–699):
Chapter 14 Chlorine Dioxide (pages 700–766):
Chapter 15 Ozone (pages 767–847):
Chapter sixteen Bromine, Bromine Chloride, BCDMH, and Iodine (pages 848–892):
Chapter 17 Ultraviolet mild (pages 893–975):
Chapter 18 complicated Oxidation techniques (pages 976–1002):

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Additional info for White's Handbook of Chlorination and Alternative Disinfectants, Fifth Edition

Sample text

Manufacturers generally prefer to ship liquid chlorine in rail tank cars to packagers who transfer it into tanker trucks, ton containers, and 150-lb cylinders. Trucks are used to transport the ton containers and 150lb cylinders to the consumer. The packagers have liquid bleach manufacturing operations to utilize the “snift gas” that would otherwise be discharged to the atmosphere when the containers are being filled. Some packagers also prepare bulk shipments of commercial-strength bleach for delivery to customers.

Membrane cells do not utilize either mercury or asbestos, which minimizes adverse impacts on workers at the plants and on the environment. Diaphragm Cells Description. 6 A permeable diaphragm separates the cell into two compartments. 2. Schematic of a diaphragm cell. 9 ELECTROLYTIC CELL DEVELOPMENT the cell in the anode compartment, flows through the diaphragm, and exits the cell from the cathode compartment. Chlorine gas is formed at the anode, and hydrogen gas is formed at the anode. Both of these gases are vented from the cell and processed elsewhere in the plant.

The first American tank car, with a capacity of 15 tons, was manufactured in 1909. 1 Current Practice. Today, chlorine is manufactured primarily by using three types of electrolytic cells: membrane, diaphragm, and mercury. Other methods, which are designed to fit the raw material containing the chlorine ion, include electrolysis of hydrochloric acid, salt process, and hydrochloric acid oxidation processes. Chlorine is also a by-product of heavy metal recovery, such as the tungsten sponge process, or extraction of magnesium from magnesium chloride ore.

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