By Paolo Squatriti, Thomas Glick, Richard Holt, Dr Colin Rynne, Richard Hoffmann, Roberta Magnusson, Te Brake, Klaus Greve, Paul Benoit

A accomplished survey of the options humans used to harness, and shield themselves from, water in Western Christendom from 500-1500, every one bankruptcy of this quantity units the applied sciences of fishing, land drainage, irrigation, flood keep watch over, and water offer inside a social and cultural context.

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Sample text

3. Millstone assembly in early medieval Irish horizontal-wheeled mill. D. is the largest in the world. Despite the wealth of information this has placed at our disposal, this evidence continues to be plagued by the extreme variability of the conditions in which it is recovered. One of its major drawbacks, indeed, is that mill components by and large are rarely recovered under controlled conditions, and in consequence their interpretation is generally governed by comparison with the structural members of finds examined in situ.

66 67 Trent (1975), 19-25. Mulchrone (1939), 297; MacEoin (1982), 15. 68 In certain cases, it is clear that these stones were not used. The sole-tree recovered from the eighth-century Drumard site did not have any seat for a pivot-stone, the gudgeon pivotting upon a recess cut on the upper face of the beam. A similar arrangement was also in evidence at Mashanaglass. The distinctive bottle-necked configuration of the eye in early Irish bedstones, provides us with the earliest evidence from anywhere in Europe for the use of bushings in early watermills.

D. 42 The formation of millponds, however, is less well documented in early medieval European sources. Millponds are referred to in the sixth century Visigothic law code and in c. D. D. 44 There can be little doubt that by the later medieval period millponds were common features of the landscape. 45 Their frequency was such that early Irish jurists went to great lengths to provide a legal framework for the water rights pertaining to them, as is evidenced by the law tract Coibnes Uisci Thairidne.

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